I Can Work This Thing!

Download this file
Click here to download


Kenwood TS-440S Instruction Manual

Note to this document user:

This document has been scanned and edited. While we have taken every care in
doing this the document has not been carefully checked by a knowledgable

Section numbers are preceded by the sign to aid searching.

Kenwood TS-440S Instruction Manual

Thank you for purchasing the new TS-440S transceiver. Please read this
instruction mannual carefully before placing your transceiver in service. This
unit has been carefully engineered and manufactured to rigid quality
standards and should give you satisfactory and dependable operation for many

The following explicit definitions apply to this manual:

Note: If disregarded inconvenience only, no risk of equipment damage or
personal injury.

Caution: Equipment damage may occur, but not personal injury.

This instruction manual covers the TS-440S with and without AT (Automatic
Antenna Tuner) unit. When there are differences in operation, separate
instructions will be given for each model.


1. Features 3

2. Installation 5
2.1. Precaution 5
2.2 Fixed station 5
2.2.1. Interconnection 5
2.2.2. Grounding 5
2.2.3. Antenna 6
2.2.4. Key connection 6
2.3. Mobile 6
2.3.1. Mounting bracket installation 6
2.3.2. Power supply connection 6

3. Operation 7
3.1. Operating controls 7
3.1.1. Front panel 7
3.1.2. Rear panel 13
3.1.3. Top cover 15
3.2. RECEIVE 15
3.2.1. Initial setting 15
3.2.2. CW zero-beat operation 16
3.2.3. Direct keyboard frequency entry 16
3.2.4. AM reception 17
3.3. TRANSMIT 17
3.3.1. SSB (USB, LSB) mode 17
3.3.2. CW mode 18
3.3.3. FM mode 19
3.3.4. AM mode 19
3.4. Automatic antenna tuner 20
3.5 Dual digital VFO's 20
3.5.1. Why two VFO's 20
3.5.2. Split frequency 21
3.6. Memory 21
3.6.1. Memory Entry 22
3.6.2. Transferring memory information to the VFO. 22
3.6.3. Transferring data between memory channels 23
3.6.4. Entering/Transferring data in the split frequency channels 23
3.6.5. Clearing a memory channel 24
3.6.6. Memory recall 24
3.7. Scan 24
3.7.1. Memory scan 24
3.7.2. Program scan 25
3.7.3. Scan speed 26
3.7.4. Memory channel lockout 26
3.8. AFSK 27
3.8.1. Reception 27
3.8.2. Transmit 27
3.8.3. AMTOR operation 28
3.9. Operation with a linear amplifier 28

4. Circuit Description 29
4.1. General description 29
4.2. Transmitter section 29
4.3. Receiver section 29
4.4. Circuit board description 30
4.4.1. RF unit (X44-1680-00) 30
4.4.2. IF unit (X60-1300-00) 30
4.4.3. Control unit (X53-1450-00) 30
4.4.4. PLL unit (X50-2050-00) 30
4.4.5. Final unit (X45-1470-00) 30
4.4.6. Filter unit (X51-1340-00) 30
4.4.7. Automatic Antenna Tuner unit (X57-1150-00) 31

5. Maintenance and adjustment 31
5.1. General information 31
5.2. Service 31
5.3. Cleaning 32
5.4. In case of difficulty 32
5.5. Microprocessor back-up lithium battery 34
5.6. Microprocessor reset 35
5.7. Ordering spare parts 35
5.8. Adjustments 35
5.8.1. Cover removal 35
5.8.2. Internal view 35
5.8.3. Digital display calibration 35
5.8.4. Optional 10 Hz display resolution 36
5.8.5. CW zero beat frequency selection 36
5.8.6. Side tone level 37
5.8.7. Beep tone selection 37
5.8.8. Beep tone level 38
5.8.9. TUNING dial torque 38
5.8.10. Linear amplifier control 38

6. Optional accessories 38
6.1. Crystal filter installation 38
6.2. Voice Synthesizer Unit VS-1 Installation 39
6.3. Interface IC Kit IC-10 Installation 40
6.3.1. Installation 40
6.3.2. Operation 41
6.4. Other accessories 41
7. Block Diagram 43

8. Schematic Diagram 43

9. Specifications and Accessories 44
9.1. Specifications 44
9.2. Accessories 47

10. Reference 47
10.1. Antenna installation 47
10.1.1. Fixed station 47
10.1.2. Mobile 48
10.2. Mobile operation 49
10.2.1. Installation 49
10.2.2. Noise reduction 49
10.2.3. Battery capacity 49

1. Features

1. Wide dynamic range
New advances in circuit design have made a 102 dB dynamic range (500 Hz
IF bandwidth) possible.

2. General coverage reception from 100 kHz to 30 MHz
In addition to transmission and reception on all amateur bands from 1.8 to 28
MHz, the TS-440S provides a continuous tuning general coverage receiver with
a range of 100 kHz to 30 MHz.

3. Automatic antenna tuner
The optional, built-in automatic antenna tuner will operate from 3.5 to 28

4. All-mode operation
USB, LSB, CW, AM, FM, and AFSK modes are provided.

5. 100% continuous duty transmit
Transmission at a 100% duty cycle is possible for relatively long durations
(one hour or less) in any mode, including FM and AFSK.

6. CW full break-in
Full break-in operation is possible in the CW mode. Rapid transmit/receive
switching also makes the radio suitable for data communication in the SSB
mode, such as AMTOR.

7. Build-in XIT
XIT (Transmitter incremental tuning) allows fine tuning of the transmitter

8. Switchable IF bandwidth
The IF bandswitch allows you to tailor the receiver bandwidth to the
operating conditions. Several selections are provided; AUTO, W (Wide), M1
(Medium 1), M2 (Medium 2) and N (Narrow). When the AUTO position has been
selected the radio will select the optimum bandwidth for the selected mode of

9. Switchable AGC time constant
A switch is provided to select either FAST or SLOW AGC action.

10. All mode squelch

11. Built-in RF power/SWR meter.

12. Versatile frequency control
- Accurate frequency selection is possible due to the use of a single
reference oscillator circuit.
- Continuous tuning of all frequencies through the use of digital VFO
technology. The basic 10 Hz step tuning rate is modified, according to the
selected mode, for optimum tuning speed and accuracy. An automatic fast scan
function is also provided.
- Dual, digital VFO's (A/B) enable crossband, cross mode operation.
- 100-channel memory (including 10 odd-split channel(s) stores the
frequency, band and mode.
- Memory scan and two programmable scan ranges.
- Direct entry of the desired frequency using the front panel numeric
keypad is also possible.
- A memory scroll function allows review of the memory channel contents.
- Selection of the desired memory channel is possible using either the
TUNING dial or microphone UP/DOWN pushbuttons.
- The T-F SET functions useful for split frequency operation.
- An optional tone unit TU-8 may be used in conjunction with the odd-split
memory channels to allow 10 meter repeater operations with CTCSS access.
- Optional computer interface.
- Built-in long-life memory back-up battery.
- 2-color fluorescent display tube indicates frequency and other
operational data.

13. Front panel control of the TUNING dial torque is provided.

2. Installation

2.1. Precaution

1. Avoid direct sunlight, and select a dry, well ventilated location.

2. Since the heat sink is on the rear panel, avoid placing the equipment
with the bottom and rear sides close to a wall or desk.

3. When installing the equipment in an automobile, ensure adequate
ventilation. Install the equipment in a location where the rear does not
make direct contact with the seat, and is not directly exposed to vibration.

4. Avoid installing the equipment in front of the car heater air outlet.

5. The standard operating voltage of the equipment is 13.8V. Do not
operate below 12 V or over 16 V.

2.2 Fixed station

2.2.1. Interconnection

The TS-440S requires more than 18A at 13.8 VDC when transmitting at full
power supply for fixed stations.

Note: The PS-50 base station supply is needed for continuous transmission

Diagram page 4

2.2.2. Grounding

Caution: Never use a gas pipe or electrical conduit pipe.

1. A ground connection that is a 1/4 wavelength or its multiple may provide
a good DC round, but it will not provide a good RF ground.
2. A city water pipe cannot be used as a good earth in some cases.

Making a good earth connection is important for preventing dangers such as
electric shock and emitting a high quality signal with minimum spurious
radiation. Bury a commercially available ground rod or copper plate under
the ground and connect it to the GND terminal of the TS-440S. A thick wire,
cut as short as possible, should be used for the connection. To make a good
earth connection, ground the CND.

Diagram page 4

The transceiver can be elevated for operating convenience.

Caution: Do not use the bail to carry the transceiver.

Diagram page 4

2.2.3. Antenna

Caution: Protect your equipment - Use a LIGHTNING ARRESTOR.
Any of the common antenna systems designed for use on the high frequency
amateur bands may be used with the TS-440S provided the input impedance
of the transmission line is not outside the capability of the Automatic
Antenna Tuner. The transmission line should be coaxial cable. An antenna
system which shows a SWR (Standing Wave Ratio) of less than 1.5 : 1 when
using 50
ohm coaxial transmission line input impedance that is essentially resistive,
and between 20 and 150 ohms will take power from the transceiver through the
AT unit.

2.2.4. Key connection

Your key should be connected as illustrated in the figure below. When using
an electronic keyer, make sure that polarity is set for positive. Always use
shielded line from the key to transceiver.

Diagram page 5

2.3. Mobile

Being compact in design, this transceiver is ideal for mobile operation.
Satisfactory mobile operation is achieved through proper power and antenna
connection, and thoughtful transceiver installation and adjustment.

2.3.1. Mounting bracket installation

Secure the TS-440S under the dashboard using an optional MB-430 mounting
bracket. As an alternative, use strapping, making sure that the TS-440S will
not slip out of place while operating the vehicle.

1. Do not install the TS-440S near the heater outlet.
2. Allow sufficient space behind the TS-440S to ensure proper ventilation.

2.3.2. Power supply connection

1. Turn POWER switch to OFF before connecting/disconnecting the power

2. Observe battery polarity.
DC power cable
Red and white +
Black and grey -

3. When charging your vehicle battery, or when jump-starting a dead
battery, ALWAYS disconnect the power cable form the back of the transceiver,
or damage may result to the transceiver.

Connect the TS-440S power cable to the battery terminals, with consideration
to current requirements and noise prevention. The maximum current drawn by
the TS-440S reaches between 18 and 20A when transmitting. Therefore, the
cable should be made as short as possible, using the specified fuse. Also,
confirm that the power system of the car (including the battery and generator
or alternator) will handle the increased load of the TS-440S.

Diagram page 5

3. Operation

3.1. Operating controls

3.1.1. Front panel

Diagram page 6

1. POWER switch
Press to turn the power ON or OFF.

2. Meter
During receive the meter is used as an S-meter. During transmit the function
of the meter is controlled by the Meter switch (29), an provides either ALC
level, PWR (power) or SWR readings.

3. MODE/KEY (Numeric Keypad)
These keys are used to select the desired mode of operation (USB, LSB, CW,
AM, FM, AFSK). When programming a memory channel or directly entering a
frequency to enter the channel number frequency.

4. Indicators
AT TUNE: Lights when the AT TUNE switch is ON. Turns itself OFF when the
antenna tuner has completed tuning.

NOTCH: Lights when the NOTCH switch is ON.

F.LOCK: Lights when the F.LOCK switch is ON.

1 MHz: Lights when the 1 MHz step switch is ON.

M.SCR: Lights when the M.IN switch is pressed. When the memory scroll
function is active you can review the contents of the memory channels without
a break in the reception of the station you are listening to.

ON AIR: Lights during transmit.

5. Frequency display
The operating frequency is displayed down to the nearest 100 Hz. Also
displays the memory channel number, RIT/XIT frequency, and includes
indicators for memory, VFO A/B, scan, split and RIT/XIT operations.

6. FUNCTION switches
The switches included in this group are the RIT/XIT, T-F SET switch, and the
VFO select switches.

7. MIC gain control
Microphone gain can be adjusted during USB, LSB, AFSK and AM operation. Gain
is increased thru clockwise rotation of this control.

8. CAR (Carrier level) control
This control sets the carrier level during CW, FM and AM operations. When
transmitting in the CW mode, adjust so that the ALC meter pointer is within
the ALC zone.

9. SQL (Squelch) control
This function operates in all modes, FM, USB, LSB, CW, AFSK, and AM.
This control is used to eliminate atmospheric noise, and receiver static
noise during no signal periods. Slowly rotate the control clockwise to the
point where the ambient noise just disappears, and speaker shuts off. This
point is known as the squelch threshold point. Now you will only hear output
from the speaker when an incoming signal is present. For weak signal
reception this control should be fully counterclockwise.
Note: The squelch threshold position will vary form mode to mode, so you may
have to readjust when you change nodes.

10. NOTCH control
The NOTCH function is used to reduce or eliminated heterodyne, or CW type
signals. The NOTCH filter will not be effective against SSB, AM or FM type
signal. to use the control, place the NOTCH switch ON and slowly rotate the
NOTCH control to reduce the interference. Normally the notch point will
occur between the 11:00 and 1:00 o'clock position
Notes: The NOTCH frequency can be varied within a range of approximately 400
to 2600 Hz.
When an interfering signal such as a CW station appears, slowly rotate the
NOTCH control. If you rotate the knob too quickly you may pass right over
the notch point. Slow rotation will yield the best results.

Diagram page 6

11. IF SHIFT control
Note: The IF SHIFT control does not function in the AM or FM modes.
The IF SHIFT control allows you to shift the IF passband of the receiver
without changing the actual center frequency of the receiver. This control
is useful when there is interference near your center frequency. As the
accompanying illustration shows rotating this control may place the
interfering signal outside the receiver passband, allowing for easier copy.
The operation of this control in the USB, LSB, AFSK, and CW modes is detailed

- USB mode
Interference from lower frequencies can be reduced or eliminated by rotating
the IF SHIFT control in the + direction. This will cause the resulting audio
frequencies to have a slightly treble response, i.e. low cut filter (low
frequencies attenuated). Interference from higher frequencies can be reduced
eliminated by rotating the IF SHIFT control in the - direction. This will
cause the resulting audio frequencies to sound a little bassy, i.e. high cut
filter (high frequencies attenuated).

- LSB/AFSK mode
Interference from lower frequencies can be reduced or eliminated by rotating
the IF SHIFT control in the + direction. This will cause the resulting audio
frequencies to sound a little bassy, just the opposite of the effect in the
USB mode. Interference from higher frequencies can be reduced or eliminated
by rotating the IF SHIFT control in the - direction. This will cause the
resulting audio frequencies to appear a little on the high side, again just
the opposite of the USB mode.

- CW mode
The operation of the IF SHIFT control is similar to that for USB with the
exception that you can control the tone of the CW note by using the RIT

Diagram page 7

12. RIT/XIT control
-RIT control
When the transmit frequency of the distant station drifts a little bit during
the QSO, but you do not wish to alter your transmit frequency to compensate,
you may wish to make use of the RIT control function. This control allows
shifting the receive frequency without shifting the transmit frequency. The
RIT control allows you to shift the receiver frequency +/- 1.2 kHz. This
control is also useful for pileups when the DX station is transmitting a
little above or below his receive frequency.
1. The RIT offset is displayed on the main display. You can therefore
preset the offset before you actually need to use it. When you move to
another station make sure you turn OFF the RIT switch.
2. The figure at the right illustrates that the RIT display and the VFO
display may not agree exactly in all instances since the RIT and VFO tune in
10 Hz steps. The normal resolution of the VFO is 100 Hz, so if the RIT or
VFO is turned slowly the associated display may not update immediately. You
will have to tune 100 Hz to see the display change.

-XIT control
When the RIT/XIT control is rotated with the XIT switch depressed the
transmit frequency can be varied +/-1.2 Khz without affecting the receiver
frequency. Pressing the switch again releases the XIT function.

13. RF gain control
This control adjusts the gain of the receiver high-frequency amplifier

For normal receiver performance, and maximum gain, this control should be
in full clockwise position. If you are having trouble copying the desired
signal make a note of the stations peak S-meter reading. Then, adjust the RF
control counterclockwise, so that the meter needle is stationary at the
desired signal will be attenuated, such as static noise, etc., making the
completion of the QSO easier.

If the incoming signal pegs the S-meter you can also reduce the receiver gain
by counterclockwise rotation of the RF control. The S-meter pointer will
always advance up-scale as the RF control is rotated counter-clockwise, as a
visual reminder that the gain of the radio has been reduced.

14. AF gain control
Turn the inside knob to increase or decrease the volume.

15. SELECTIVITY switch
When an optional filter is installed, the radio's passband can be switched to
one of four different bandwidths.

The switch has five positions; AUTO, N, M1, M2 and W, that are used to select
the bandwidth. The M1, and N positions are not active until the optional
filters are installed, see the accompanying chart. This switch should
normally be set to the AUTO position. The IF bandwidth will then be selected
for optimum receiver characteristics, according to the MODE that has been
selected. Manual override is possible by simple rotation of the SELECTIVITY

The table in section 6.1, crystal filter installation shows the bandwidth of
each switch setting. Note the differences when the optional filters are
installed. The YK-88C is used in the "N" position and the YK-88SN in the
"M1" position. Notes:
1. During transmit the wide filter position is selected regardless of the
position of the SELECTIVITY switch.
2. When in the FM mode the bandwidth is set to N or M1, and no optional
filters have been installed, there will be no sound from the speaker. Refer
to the optional filter installation procedure in the rear of these options.

16. AGC switch
This switch selects the operating time constant of the AGC (Automatic Gain
Control) circuit during receive. When the AGC switch is set to SLOW, the
receiver gain and S-meter readings will react slowly to large input changes,
and when set to FAST, the receiver gain and S-meter will react quickly to
changes in the input signal level.
The normal position when using all modes is the SLOW position. When working
weak signals, or high speed CW you might wish to use the FAST position.
Note: This switch is disabled during FM operations.

17. NOTCH switch
When this switch is ON, the notch filter is activated.

18. PROC (Processor) switch
Effective transmit power output will increase when the PROC switch is turned
ON during USB, LSB, AFSK, or FM mode operation.
Note: When the speech processor function is used in the USB, LSB, or AFSK
mode it is possible to overdrive the transmitter: An easy way to check for
excessive modulation is to monitor the ALC meter. If the needle is over the
ALC zone you are overmodulating. Reduce the MIC gain control setting until
the needle remains in the ALC zone on voice peaks.

19. F.LOCK switch
The selected dial frequency is locked and cannot be changed except thru the
use of the RIT/XIT controls, when this switch is ON.

20. UP/DOWN switches
Pressing the UP switch increases the frequency, and pressing the DOWN
switch decreases it.

21. 1 MHz step switch
This switch is used to determine if the UP/DOWN switches will function in 1
MHz steps or only thru the amateur bands. When the 1 MHz step position is
selected, the 1 MHz indicator will light.

22. TUNING dial (VFO)
Rotate the knob to select the desired frequency. Fast tuning is possible by
rotating the knob rapidly. This control may also be used to select the
desired memory channel. The dial is adjustable by holding the outside knob
and turning the inside knob clockwise to increase drag, and counterclockwise
to decrease drag.

23. Program keys
M -> V: Used to recall a frequency from memory to the VFO.

SCAN: Pressing during VFO operation will initiate program scan, and pressing
during memory operation will initiate memory operation during scan operation
will cause the scan speed to toggle between 2 speeds, fast and slow.

CLEAR: Used to cancel memory storage operations, or to cancel an entry
during direct keyboard entry of frequency using the ENT key.

VFO/M: Used to switch between memory or VFO operations:

M.IN: Used to enter data into a memory channel.

ENT: Used to directly enter a frequency from the numeric keypad

24. MIC jack
Connector for a microphone.

Diagram page 8

26. AT TUNE switch
When this switch is turned ON with AUTO/THRU switch is placed in the AUTO
position, the automatic tuner will be engaged and the tuner will try to match
the antenna.

27. AUTO/THRU switch
AUTO: The auto antenna tuner is used in transmit.
THRU: The auto antenna tuner is not used in transmit.

28. Standby switch
This switch is used when you want to manually control transmit or receive.
SEND: Places the radio into transmit.
REC: Places the radio into receive

The Standby switch is also used to clear an entry during direct entry of VFO
frequencies, or when entering a memory channel.

29. ALC/PWR/SWR meter switch
ALC meter
Used to monitor the drive level in USV, LSB, and AFSK modes.

PWR meter
Used to indicate the output power. Note that this meter is a peak reading
meter, not an average reading meter.

SWR meter
Used to indicate the Standing Wave Ratio of the antenna and feedline
connected to the ANT connector when the AUTO/THRU switch is activated.

When the incoming receive signal is very strong (20 dB over S-9), the signal
should be attenuated to prevent distortion of the signal, thereby stabilizing
the receiver performance. This is easily done by activating the ATT switch.
This control is also useful when a strong signal is near your desired signal,
while some loss will occur to the desired signal, the use of the attenuator
will sometimes allow you to complete the QSO.

31. NB (Noise Blanker) switch
When pulsating noise, such as that caused by automobile ignitions is
encountered, place the NB switch ON. this will provide approximately 40 dB's
of attenuation to this interfering signal. If there is no noise present, the
switch should be in the OFF position. This switch will not help to eliminate
atmospheric or line noises, only pulse type noise.

32. VOICE switch
When the optional VS-1 voice synthesizer unit is installed the operating
frequency will be announced whenever the VOICE switch is depressed. For
a dial frequency of 14.200.0 the frequency will by announced as "one",
"four", "point", "two", "zero", "zero", "zero", "zero".

3.1.2. Rear panel

Diagram page 10

1. ACC 3 terminal
Spare RCA type terminal. No internal connections have been made.

2. AFSK IN terminal
AFSK input terminal.

3. AFSK OUT terminal
Constant level AF output terminal for AFSK operation.

4. ANTI VOX control
VOX operations are sometimes difficult with high speaker volume control
settings. The ANTI VOX control is used to reduce the tendency of the VOX to
activate from inputs from the speaker. The ANTI VOX control is not active
when headphones are connected, for obvious reasons!

Diagram page 10

5. DELAY control
This control adjusts the "hang-time" that the radio will remain keyed after
input has stopped.

Diagram page 10

6. VOX GAIN control
This control adjusts the sensitivity of the VOX amplifier. Adjust this
control for
your personal preference.

Diagram page 10

7. ACC 1 jack
This jack is designed for connection of the 6-pin DIN connector supplied with
the optional interface unit.

8. EXT. SP (External speaker) jack
This jack is for connection of an external speaker.

9. DC power connector
This is used to connect the DC power supply.

10. KEY jack
Using shielded line, connect a 1/4" phone plug to this jack for CW operation.
Open-terminal voltage is approximately is approximately 5.5 VDC.

11. ANT (Antenna) connector
This UHF connector should be attached to a suitable antenna for transmitting
and receiving. The antenna cable should be 50-ohm coax, terminated with a
PL-259 connector.

12. To prevent electric shock, as well as RFI and BCI, connect the
transceiver to a good earth ground.

13. ACC 2 jack
Terminal numbers and their applications are as follows:

Diagram page 11

Pin No. Pin Name Application

1 NC No connection
2 NC No connection
3 Data output Output level is fixed regardless of the AF
control setting.
Output voltage:
300 mV or more at maximum receiving input
with 4.7 k load
4 GND Grounding (The shielded wire of the audio
output terminal is connected here.)
5 NC No connection
6 NC No connection
7 NC No connection
8 GND Grounding
9 MIC mute Signal input from the MIC jack is muted.
Grounding mutes signal.
10 NC No connection
11 Data input Input terminal for data communication. In
SSB, MIC gain can be controlled by the MIC control.
500 mV or less
(SSB: Voltage starts deflecting ALC. FM: Voltage providing +/- 3.0 kHz
modulation ratio.)
12 GND Grounding (The shielded wire of the audio
input is connected here.)
13 Standby Standby terminal
Grounding transmits.

14. REMOTE connector
Note: When the control relay is used refer to section 5.8.10

Diagram page 11

3.1.3. Top cover

Diagram page 11

VOX (Voice Operated Switch) operation is possible in LSB, USB, FM or AFSK
mode operations. To activate the VOX circuitry place the VOX switch ON.

This control is also used to select either Full or Semi automatic break-in.


Diagram page 12

3.2.1. Initial setting

1. Preset the controls as shown in the accompanying illustration above.

2. Place the POWER switch to ON. (During fixed-station operation you must
first turn ON your DC power supply, the PS-50 is recommended.)

3. The meter will illuminate and a frequency will appear in the display.

4. Set the BAND switches for the desired band. If you desire to tune a
frequency other than one of the amateur radio frequencies, place the 1 MHz
switch ON. With the 1 MHz switch ON the UP/DOWN switches will advance the
frequency in 1 MHz steps, rather than thru the amateur radio bands.

5. Select the desired MODE using one of the mode switches.

1. By international convention amateur radio frequencies below 10 MHz
utilize the LSB (Lower Sideband) mode, and frequencies of 10 MHz and above
use (Upper Sideband).
2. the TS-/440S automatically selects the normal mode for you. the exact
changeover point is 9.5 MHz. You can override this selection by pressing the
desired mode switch.

6. Adjust the AF gain control for the desired volume.

7. Slowly rotate the TUNING dial until the desired signal can be heard

8. The desired receive frequency can also be entered directly by using the
numeric keypad. For details of this operation please refer to the "Direct
keyboard frequency entry" section.

3.2.2. CW zero-beat operation

Zero-beat operation with a station during CW mode operation

1. Set the RIT/XIT switches to OFF.

2. When an optional filter is not used, tune the TUNING dial so that the
receive beat frequency is approximately 800 Hz. You can check this by
turning the VOX OFF, and then closing your CW key. Then by using the
sidetone oscillator, and the incoming receive signal you can zero-beat by
turning the TUNING dial until the two tones are the same frequency.

3. when the YK-88C filter is used the simplest method to use is to adjust
the TUNING dial for maximum S-meter deflection.

Reception at the desired pitch after zero-beat operation.
1. After zero-beating turn the RIT switch ON, and adjust the RIT control
for the strongest signal level.

Diagram page 12

3.2.3. Direct keyboard frequency entry

Direct keyboard entry of the frequency is possible using the numeric keypad
on the TS-440S. This allows rapid changes in frequency without the delays
encountered when using other tuning methods.

1. Selects the VFO mode.

2. Press the ENT key. The display will indicate " , , ".

Diagram page 13

3. Enter the desired operating frequency from Most Significant Digit to the
Least Significant Digit. You do not have to enter trailing zeros, but you
must enter a leading zero for frequencies between 1 and 3.99999 MHz or two
leading zeros for frequencies between 0.1 and 0.99999 MHz. (03.500.00 MHz).

Diagram page 13

4. After the last digit has been entered press the ENT key again to signify
you want the radio to change frequency. If you entered the frequency down to
the nearest 10 Hz a beep will sound and the radio will automatically change
to the new frequency without the need of pressing the ENT key for the second

Diagram page 13

For example: To enter 14.200.00 MHz there are two methods: Method one:
Press [ENT], [1], [4], [2], [ENT].
Method two: [ENT], [1], [4], [2], [0], [0], [0], [0].

Diagram page 13

Note: Attempting to enter a frequency outside the tuning range of the radio
will cause the display to return to ". .".

5. If you make a mistake while entering the frequency and have not yet
pressed the ENT key, or entered the final digit, you may cancel the input by
pressing either the CLEAR key or standby switch.

3.2.4. AM reception

There are cases during AM broadcast reception, where interference in
noticeable when SELECTIVITY is W, but the intelligibility is poor with the
radio in the M2 position, due to a lack of high frequency response. If this
condition occurs place the SELECTIVITY switch to M2 and rotate the TUNING
dial +/-
1 kHz from the center frequency. It should be possible to find a point where
the interference will be a little greater, intelligibility should be
improved. Another method utilizes the excellent receiver stability of the
TS-440S by selecting USB or LSB and tuning to one of the sidebands of the AM
signal. The only disadvantage to this method is that a 5 Hz beat tone might
be detected along with the desired receive signal.


3.3.1. SSB (USB, LSB) mode

1. Set the MDE keys to USB or LSB. By international convention frequencies
below 10 MHz utilize the LSB (Lower Sideband) mode, and frequencies above 10
MHz use USB (Upper Sideband). The actual switchover point on the TS- 440S is
9.5 MHz. the TS-440S will select the proper mode when you tune to the
desired frequency. You can override this by simply pressing the desired mode

2. Set the Meter switch to ALC.

Diagram page 13

3. Press the microphone PTT switch, or set the Standby switch from REC to

4. Speak into the microphone and adjust the MIC gain control so that the
meter deflection does not exceed the ALC zone on voice peaks.

Adjustment using the ALC meter provides greater accuracy than if you try and
use the power meter for adjustment. Never adjust for ALC deflection above
the ALC zone, as this will cause distortion of the transmitted audio signal.

Diagram page 13

Do not exceed the ALC zone on voice peaks.

3.3.2. CW mode

Set MODE keys to CW and set the Meter switch to ALC.

Diagram page 14

Placing the Standby switch to send and depressing the CW key will cause the
radio to transmit.
Transmission is also possible when in the SEMI or FULL break-in mode by
simply depressing the key, with the Standby switch in the REC position

Adjust the CAR control until the meter deflection is within the ALC zone.

Diagram page 14

- SEMI and FULL break-in
Two break-in methods are provided with the TS-440S transceiver, SEMI and FULL
break-in. With either break-in operation depressing the CW key will cause
the radio to transmit without the need for manually switching the SENd/REC
switch. The difference between FULL and SEMI break-ins is that during FULL
break-in operation it is possible to listen between dots and dashes, and that
during SEMI break-in it is not.

Note: With either SEMI or FULL break-in operation, cross band/cross mode
operation is not possible. Additionally, when you are using FULL break-in
operation you should not work cross band splits, only on the same band.

The TS-440S also provides a side-tone oscillator circuit to allow monitoring
of your CW signal during transmission.

(a) Semi-automatic break-in
Depressing the CW key will automatically place the transceiver into the
transmit mode. Transmit mode will be maintained for a period determined by
the setting of the VOX DELAY control on the rear panel of the transceiver,
even after the CW key is released.

Diagram page 14

(b) Full-automatic break-in
Depressing the CW key will automatically place the transceiver into the
transmit mode. Releasing the CW key will return the radio to receive
immediately enabling reception between characters.

Caution: The TL-922A/922 linear amplifier is not designed for full break-in
type operation. Attempting to use this accessory in the FULL break-in mode
will cause damage to occur to the linear amplifier.

Diagram page 14

On occasion an electronic keyer may be used that has not method of producing
a continuous transmit condition. In order to obtain a continuous carrier for
tuning simply place the Standby switch to the SEND position.

3.3.3. FM mode

Select the desired frequency within the 28 MHz amateur radio band. Place the
MODE key to FM and the Meter switch to ALC.

Diagram page 14

Press the microphone PTT switch or place the Standby switch to SEND.

Adjust the CAR control until the meter deflection is within the ALC zone.
This will provide full power in the FM mode.

To decrease the poser, place the Meter switch to PWR and while observing the
meter rotate the CAR control counterclockwise until the desired output level
is obtained.

Diagram page 14

1. The FM power output may fluctuate if running less than full output.
2. Ensure that an antenna with a low SWR is used. The TS-440S provides
several protection circuits, continually loading into a antenna with a high
SWR (3 to 1 or greater) will eventually cause damage to the final amplifiers.
3. The PWR meter reading may not be accurate with high SWR values. Use a
good antenna for the most accurate readings.

- Subaudible tone
An optional subaudible tone unit TU-8 is available for installation in the
TS- 440S for accessing 10 meter FM repeaters. This tone is activated
whenever the TS-440S is in the SPLIT mode.

3.3.4. AM mode

1. Set the Meter switch to PWR.
2. Set the MODE key to AM.
3. Place the Standby switch to SEND.
4. Adjust the CAR control so that the meter indicates 25 watts.
5. Place the Meter switch to ALC.
6. Adjust the MIC gain control so that the meter deflection does not exceed
ALC zone on voice peaks.

3.4. Automatic antenna tuner

(The AT unit AT-440 is required for this function.)

The automatic antenna tuner operates within the amateur radio bands from 3.5
thru 29.7 MHz.

1. Ensure that an antenna designed for use within the band you intend to
operate on is properly connected to the antenna terminal.

2. Set the AUTO/THRU switch to the AUTO position.

3. Place the AT TUNE switch to the ON position. The AT TUNE indicator will
light and the tuner will begin tuning. Then the CW mode indicator will

4. After a short period the AT TUNE indicator will go OFF and the motors
will stop turning.

5. Place the AT TUNE switch to OFF.

6. Tuning is now completed. You may now carry out normal communications.

1. When the AT TUNE switch is ON and the AT indicator lights but then goes
out immediately it is an indication that the antenna was not that far off
resonance and that tuning has been completed.
2. Normal operation is not possible until the AT TUNE switch has been
turned OFF.
3. If the motors do not stop turning after approximately 30 seconds, place
the AT TUNE switch to OFF, and then back to ON again. The tuner will attempt
to tune again, and should find a good match. If the tuner will not stop
after several tries it indicates some problem exists with the antenna system.
Readjust the antenna and feedline before attempting to tune again.

3.5 Dual digital VFO's

Operational convenience can be enhanced thru the use of both VFO A and VFO B.

3.5.1. Why two VFO's

Occasionally DX stations will utilize an operational procedure known as split
frequency operation. When the DX station is in this mode he will be
transmitting on one frequency and receiving on another. This is done in
order for the DX station to be able to recognize the calls of stations during

Older transceivers required the use of an external VFO to allow this split
frequency operation. The TS-440S, thru the use of microprocessor controls,
effectively provides two separate VFO's in the same package. Several
different controls and switches have been provided to increase the operators
convenience when faced with this type of operation. The use of these
controls is discussed below.

3.5.2. Split frequency

(a) A=B switch
Depressing this switch causes the data contained in the inactive VFO (the VFO
that is not currently being displayed) to change to the same data contained
in the active VFO (the one currently displayed). Both the frequency and mode
are changed.

For example: VFO A is set at 7 MHz is LSB, and VFO B is 21 MHz in USB.
VFO A is the active VFO (show on the display). Depressing the A=B switch
will cause VFO B to change to 7 MHz in LSB.

(b) A/B switch
Allows selection of the desired active VFO. Each time this switch is
the active VFO will alternate between VFO A and VFO B.

(c) SPLIT switch
allows the use of one VFO for transmit, and the other for receive (Split
Frequency operation). For example: VFO A is the active VFO, and VFO B is
the inactive VFO. Depressing the SPLIT switch will cause the TS-440S to
receive on VFO A and transmit on VFO B. the mode of reception and
transmission will follow the mode contained in the appropriate VFO memory.
It is possible to work cross band, cross mode if desired.

To avoid confusion during contest, or pile-up operations we recommend using
VFO A for receive and VFO B for transmit.

(d) T-F SET switch
Depressing this switch will allow you to rapidly set or check the transmit
frequency, during SPLIT operations, without the need of actually

This switch is especially convenient when you are trying to locate the
transmit frequency of the station currently in contact with the DX station,
since depressing this switch allows you to receive on the transmit frequency
as long as the switch is held depressed. The TUNING dial is active when this
switch is depressed, so it is easy to change your transmitter frequency at
the same time, if necessary. Releasing the switch will return you to the
original receive frequency.

3.6. Memory

The TS-440S incorporates a convenient 100 channel memory that can be used to
store and recall commonly used frequencies. these channels can be subdivided
into 10 user-defined groups to tailor the TS-440S for optimum operation in a
particular application. You can, for instance, assign channels 10 through 29
to the 160 meter band, channels 20 through 29 to the 80 meter band, channels
30 through 39 to the 40 meter band (LSB), channels 40 through 49 to the 20
meter band (USB), channels 50 through 59 to the 15 meter band, channels 60
through 69 to the 10 meter band (FM), channels 70 through 79 to the 12 meter
band, and channels 80 through 89 to various shortwave bands. Channels 90
through 99 could then be assigned as split frequency channels. After
completing channel assignments, you can then use the convenient memory scan
function to automatically recall the stored frequencies on a group basis.

3.6.1. Memory Entry

1. With the TS-440S in the VFO mode, select the desired operating frequency
and mode as described in previous sections.

Diagram page 16

2. Press the M.IN switch. the radio will enter the Memory Scroll (M.SCR)
mode. The current memory channel number (M.CH), frequency and mode will be
displayed, but the actual operating frequency and mode will remain unchanged
allowing uninterrupted reception.

Diagram page 16

3. Select the desired memory channel using one of the three methods
described below.
a. Turn the TUNING dial until the desired channel number is displayed (One
revolution of the dial cover about 10 channels).

Diagram page 16

b. Enter a two digit channel number using the numeric keypad, being sure to
include the leading zero for channels 00 through 09. Pressing the CLEAR key
or the standby switch before pressing the second digit will return you to the
original channel.

Diagram page 16

c. Use the UP/DOWN switches and/or microphone UP/DOWN switches to scroll
thru the different memory positions.

5. When the desired memory channel is displayed, press the M.IN key again.
the current frequency and mode will be stored, the scroll mode will be
cancelled, and the TS-440S will return to the operating mode and frequency
that was displayed before the M.IN key was pressed initially. Note that if
RIT was selected prior to step 2, the actual frequency stored will be the
indicated frequency plus or minus the RIT variable.

3.6.2. Transferring memory information to the VFO.

1. Press the VFO/M key to select the memory mode.

Diagram page 16

2. Select a channel using any of the methods discussed under the Memory
Entry section.

Diagram page 16

3. Press the M->V key. the stored data will be transferred to the active
VFO allowing you to begin tuning from that point. The TS-440S automatically
returns to the VFO mode when the M->key is depressed.

Diagram page 16

1. The RIT/XIT status will be copied from the memory to the VFO when the M-
V key is depressed.
2. When data is transferred from the split frequency memory, the active VFO
is loaded with the receive data and the inactive VFO will be loaded with the
transmit data. The TS-440S will then automatically enter the SPLIT mode.
3. This operation will not function if no data is contained in the
displayed memory channel.
4. Data in the VFO is replaced by the memory data. Memory data is not lost
during this operation.

3.6.3. Transferring data between memory channels

1. with the TS-440S in the memory mode, press the M.IN key and scroll to
the channel that you want the data to be transferred to.

Diagram page 17

2. Press the M.IN key. The frequency and mode of the memory channel that
appeared before you pressed the M.IN key will be duplicated in the new

Diagram page 17

3.6.4. Entering/Transferring data in the split frequency channels

Separate transmit and receive frequencies may be entered into memory channels
90 through 99. the procedure is similar to that given for the other channels
with the following exception:
1. The active VFO frequency and mode is stored in the receive memory, and
the inactive VFO frequency and mode is stored in the transmit memory,
regardless of whether the SPLIT function is ON or OFF.
2. The RIT offset is stored in the receive memory, and the XIT offset in
the transmit memory.
3. When data is transferred from the general memory section into the split
frequency memory section the transmit and receive frequencies will be the
4. Only the receive memory will be transferred into general memory during
transfer operations from the split memory area.

3.6.5. Clearing a memory channel

Two methods may be used to clear a memory channel:
1. M.IN switch
Transferring information from a vacant channel, i.e. one that has no stored
information, thru the use of the M.IN switch as described previously in
3.6.1. is one method of "clearing" a memory channel.
2. ENT switch
Data may also be erased by depressing the ENT key while depressing the
CLEAR key.

3.6.6. Memory recall

Fixed channel type recall is possible when using the VFO/M key to recall
memory channel information. The stored frequency cannot be changed, although
the RIT/XIT function is active.
1. Press the VFO.M key. The memory channel number, mode, and stored
frequency data will be displayed. If a channel contains no data, only the
channel number will be displayed.

Diagram page 17

2. Select the desired memory channel using the methods described under
Memory Entry section.

Diagram page 17

3. to return to the VFO mode, press the VFO/M key again.

Diagram page 17

1. RIT/XIT will be cancelled when the TS-440S is switched from the VFO mode
to the memory mode, but will be restored when the TS-440S returns to the VFO
2. When the TS-440S is switched from the memory mode to the VFO mode, the
VFO will be set to the RIT/XIT variable specified when the data was
programmed in to memory.

3.7. Scan

3.7.1. Memory scan

Memory scan operated from memory channel 00 thru memory channel 99 at
approximately 3-4 second intervals, or you may specify which memory groups
you want to scan. Only these memory channels with data entered are scanned.

To initiate memory scan of all memory channels
1. Press the VFO/M key to select the memory mode.

2. Press the SCAN key. Scan will begin at memory channel 00, or the lowest
numbered channel containing data.

3. You can stop scanning by pressing the CLEAR or microphone PTT switch.
Pressing the PTT switch will allow you to continue scanning from the point
that you stopped, and pressing the CLEAR key will allow you to start scanning
from the beginning.

4. To resume scan press the SCAN key again.

To initiate memory scan of specific memory channel groups
1. Press the VFO/M key to select the memory mode.

2. Press and hold the SCAN key.

3. You may specify which memory groups you want to scan by depressing the
key that corresponds to the ten position of the memory channel group.

Diagram page 17

Diagram page 18

4. You can stop scanning, or resume scan using the same methods described
above for the entire memory scan.

3.7.2. Program scan

Two programmable scan ranges are provided on the TS-440S transceiver. PG.S-1
(Program Scan range 1) utilizes memory channels 06 and 07 to specify the
upper and lower scan limits. PG.S-2 (Program Scan range 2) utilizes memory
channels 08 and 09 to specify the upper and lower scan limits.

To initiate PG.S
1. Press the VFO/M key to select VFO operation.

2. Press and hold the SCAN key.

3. To initiate PF.S 1 press the 6 key, and then release both the 6 and the
SCAN keys. Scan will begin on the frequency programmed in memory in
memory channel number 6 and proceed in 10 Hz steps to the upper limit stored
in memory channel 7, then return to channel 6 and begin again.

Diagram page 18

4. To initiate PG.S 2 press the 8 key, and then release both the 8 and the
Scan key. Scan will proceed in the limits specified in memory channels 8 and
9, just as for PG.S1.

Diagram page 18

5. If you want to scan both ranges PG.S 1 and PG.S 2, press the 6 and then
the 8 key while holding the SCAN key down, and then release the SCAN key.
Scan will proceed thru the limits in memory channels 6 and 7, thru the limits
in memory channels 8 and 9, and then return to begin the process again.

Diagram page 18

6. To stop scanning press the PTT switch, or the CLEAR key. Pressing the
SCAN key allows scan to resume from the point you stopped.

Note: The TS-440S microprocessor remembers the various scan parameters
that you have specified and will follow whatever you have entered the next
time you press the SCAN key.

Example 1: Memory mode
Previously programmed memory scan data was to scan channels 20-29 and
To scan this same range again simply press the SCAN key.

Example 2: VFO mode
Previously entered program scan data was to scan both PG.S 1 and PG.S 2. To
initiate program scan over these two ranges simply press the SCAN key.

The TS-440S will continue to execute scan according to the above parameters
until you manually change the information. This saves a lot of key strokes
if you always scan the same ranges, etc.

3.7.3. Scan speed

Two scan speeds are available with the TS-440S. To change the speed press
the SCAN key after you have initiated scan. You will be able to toggle
between fast and slow each time you press the key.

Note: The scan step size depends upon the mode that has been selected for
SSB, CW and AFSK the step size is 10 Hz, for FM and AM the step size is 100

3.7.4. Memory channel lockout

This transceiver has a memory channel lockout function which allows you to
temporarily skip unwanted memory channels during memory scan.

1. Press the VFO/M key to enter the memory mode.

2. Select the memory channel that you want to skip using the numeric
keypad, the TUNING knob, or the UP/DOWN microphone or BAND switches.

3. Press the CLEAR switch.

Diagram page 18

4. A decimal point will appear in the M.CH display to indicate that the
channel will be skipped.

Diagram page 18

5. To cancel the lockout, select the desired channel and then press the
CLEAR switch. The decimal point will go out indication that the channel will
again be scanned.

Diagram page 18

3.8. AFSK

3.8.1. Reception

Note: An RTTY terminal is required to receive and display/print the RTTY

1. The AFSK mode utilizes the LSB carrier frequency, which conforms to
international conventions

2. When the optional YK-88C filter is installed, the normal receiver
bandwidth is 500 Hz when the SELECTIVITY switch is set to the AUTO position,
and the MODE switch is in AFSK.

3. The demodulated AFSK signal is sent from the AFSK OUT terminal on the
rear panel.

4. This completes the preparation for using the AFSK mode.

Note: Before connecting the terminal you should review the contents of the
instruction manual provided with that terminal unit.

Diagram page 19

Diagram page 19

3.8.2. Transmit

Note: Key down periods of 1 hour will require a cool down period of
approximately 30 minutes. The PS-50 heavy-duty supply is recommended for
continuous duty transmission.

1. Ensure that your terminal is set up for AFSK type keying.

2. Connect the terminal units AFSK output jack to TS-440S AFSK IN jack, and
the terminal unit's AFSK input jack to the TS-440S AFSK OUT jack on the rear
panel of the transceiver. The terminal units standby (PTT) terminal should
be connected to the standby terminal on the REMOTE connector of the TS-440S.

3. Place the MODE key on the TS-440S to AFSK, and the Meter switch to ALC.

4. To transmit, either place the SEND/REC switch on the TS-440S to SEND, or
use the PTT signal from your terminal unit.

5. When using AFSK, you can also apply your transmit signal tomes to pin
number 1 of the microphone connector, if you do not wish to use the two jacks
on the rear of the TS-440s. To adjust the power output in AFSK, increase or
decrease the MIC gain control setting. A mid-scale ALC reading will yield
full power output.

1. AFSK operation requires terminal unit designed to supply this type of
operation. You cannot use FSK tones with an AFSK jack!
2. The AFSK oscillator circuit should provide audio tones of 2125 and 2295
Hz. Lower tones may cause spurious output due to the higher harmonic content
present with these lower frequencies.
3. the TS-440S and RTTY terminal unit should use separate power supplies,
in order to prevent RFI (Radio Frequency Interference).
4. During AFSK mode operation, the microphone switch should be OFF or
ground pin No. 9 of the ACC 2 jack, or the microphone disconnected, if you
are using the AFSK jacks on the rear panel.
5. The AFSK input level should be less than 100 mV.

3.8.3. AMTOR operation

For AMTOR operation, you should reverse the transmit/receive input polarity
on your AMTOR terminal, since AFSK on the TS-440S operates in the LSB
mode. If you cannot reverse the polarity, you should select the USB mode on
the TS-440S.
During AMTOR operation, the microphone switch should be OFF, or ground pin
No, 9 of the ACC 2 jack, or the microphone disconnected, if you are using
AFSK IN/OUT jacks on the rear panel.

3.9. Operation with a linear amplifier

The TS-440S may be operated with any conventional linear amplifier which will
accept up to approximately 125 watts of RF drive, has a low current DC
operated keying circuit, and returns approximately -8 to -1 VDC ALC back to
the exciter. Please note that in order to operate full QSK (FULL break-in)
the linear amplifier must also be QSK capable.

Initial linear amplifier tune-up should be performed with the TS-440S set for
approximately 50 watts output to reduce wear and tear on both the linear, and
the TS-440S. Use of a dummy load is strongly recommended, since the bands
are already sufficiently crowded.

4. Circuit Description

4.1. General description

The TS-440S utilizes double-conversion for FM transmission, and triple-
conversion for all other transmission modes, and for all modes in receive.
The intermediate frequencies are 45.05 MHz, 8.83 MHz and 455 kHz.
A wide dynamic range is made possible thru the use of 2SK 125 junction FET's
in the receiver section's 1st and 2nd mixers, and by a 3SK73 dual-gate MOS
FET in the 3rd mixer.
An integrated circuit balanced modulator (AN62) is used in the 1st
transmitter mixer and 2SK122's are used in the 2nd and 3rd mixers. The PLL
circuit, consisting of 5 loops, and the digital VFO are controlled by a
single reference oscillator circuit. IF SHIFT and 10 Hz tuning steps are
provided thru the use of this system.

4.2. Transmitter section

The incoming microphone audio is routed to the IF unit where it is amplified
by the microphone amplifier and then distributed to the SSB, FM and VOX
circuits. The SSB signal is applied to the balanced modulator, then
amplified and converted to the 1st IF frequency of 455 kHz. This DSB (Double
Side Band) signal is filtered to obtain the SSB signal. The SSB signal is
mixed with the local oscillator frequency of 8.375 MHz in the 1st mixer to
obtain the 2nd IF signal of 8.83 MHz. This signal is filtered by a CF
(Ceramic Filter) to remove the unwanted by-products of the mixing action.
The filtered output is applied to the RF unit.
In the RF unit the signal is mixed with the HET OSC frequency of 36.22 MHz.
This signal is combined with the VCO signal in the 3rd mixer to obtain the
transmit frequency which is applied to the Final unit via a LPF (Low Pass
Filter). The Final unit amplifies the signal to the desired power level and
then routes the signal thru an additional LPF to the antenna terminal, or the
Antenna Tuner, if installed.

4.3. Receiver section

The incoming signal for the antenna is fed to the receive band-pass filters
in the RF unit, via a front panel controlled attenuator circuit. Selection
of the desired BPF is accomplished thru data supplied from the Control unit.
Signals from the BPF are mixed with the VCO signal in the 1st RX mixer to
obtain the 1st IF frequency of 45.05 MHz . This signal is filtered by a MCF
(Monolithic Crystal Filter) and applied to the 2nd RX mixer. This mixer
combines the 1st IF frequency with the HET OSC frequency of 36.22 MHz to
obtain the 2nd IF frequency of 8.83 MHz.
This 2nd IF frequency is split into two paths, one to the noise blanker
circuits, and the other past the noise blanking gate to the 2nd IF filter.
The signal that is blanking to the 2nd IF filter. The signal that is taken
from the output of the 2nd IF filter is applied to the 3rd RX mixer, via a
buffer amplifier, where it is mixed with the local oscillator frequency of
8.375 MHz, to obtain the 3rd IF frequency of 455 kHz
This 3rd IF frequency is either amplified and then demodulated by the FM
detector IC, for FM operation, or applied to the 455 kHz filter. After
filtering the signal is amplified and applied either to the SSB or AM
detector circuits.

4.4. Circuit board description

The TS-440S contains the following major units: RF unit, IF unit, Control
unit, PLL unit, Filter unit, AT unit, etc. A brief description of these
units follows.

4.4.1. RF unit (X44-1680-00)

The receive section of this unit includes the BPF's for each band, the 1st RX
mixer, a 45.05 MHz MCF, the 2nd RX mixer, a 45.05 MHz MCF, the 2nd RX mixer,
noise blanker circuits, and an 8.83 MHz MCF. the transmit section includes
the 2nd TX mixer, 3rd TX mixer, amplifier circuits, FM microphone amplifier
circuit, microphone limiter circuits, and four VCO's required to cover the
frequencies from 100kHz to 30 MHz.

4.4.2. IF unit (X60-1300-00)

the receive section of this unit contains the 8.83 MHz filter, 3rd RX mixer,
455 kHz filter, detector, and low frequency amplifiers. the transmit section
contains the microphone amplifier, balanced modulator, 1st TX mixer, 8.83 MHz
filter, etc. This unit also includes the timing circuit which control the CW
break-in circuit, and the 8.375 MHz local oscillator circuit.

4.4.3. Control unit (X53-1450-00)

The unit is centered around the main microprocessor, and provides a wide
variety of control signals for all the various units.

4.4.4. PLL unit (X50-2050-00)

Five PLL loops are provided, as well as the reference crystal oscillator (36

4.4.5. Final unit (X45-1470-00)

This unit amplifies the TX RF signal for transmission. TS-440S has an output
of 100W, This is accomplished by utilizing a three-stage final amplifier
section having a relatively bow collector loss figure, and a high efficiency
cooling system.

4.4.6. Filter unit (X51-1340-00)

Provides for a high quality transmitter output by reducing unwanted harmonic
emissions. this unit also detects the forward and reflected power sensing
circuits for ALC, SWR and Antenna Tuner circuits.

4.4.7. Automatic Antenna Tuner unit (X57-1150-00)

This unit consists of the tuner and control sections. The tuner section
consists of three coils and motor driven variable capacitors which form the
actual tuning circuit. the control section takes the information provided by
the filter unit, as well as band and frequency data provided by the RF unit
to control the variable capacitors, and switching off the coil. The
automatic antenna tuner operates from 3.5 thru 29.7 MHz.

5. Maintenance and adjustment

5.1. General information

Your transceiver has been factory aligned and tested to specification before
shipment. Under normal circumstances the transceiver will operate in
accordance with these operating instructions. All adjustable trimmers and
coils in your transceiver were preset at the factory and should only be
readjusted be a qualified technician with proper test equipment.
Attempting service or alignment without factory authorization can void the
transceiver's warranty.

When operated properly, the transceiver can give years of service without
requiring realignment. The information in this section gives some general
service procedures which can be accomplished without sophisticated test

5.2. Service

Should it ever become necessary to return equipment to your dealer or service
center for repair, pack in its original box and packing, and include a full
description of problems involved. Also include your telephone number. You
nee not return accessory items unless directly related to the service

You may return you radio for service to the Authorized TRIO-KENWOOD Dealer
from whom you purchased it. A copy of the service report will be returned
with the unit. Please do not send sub-assembles or printed circuit boards.
Send the complete unit, in its original boxes and packing.

Tag all returned items with your name and call for identification Please
mention the model and serial number of your radio in any correspondence,
whether phone or written. For future reference, record this information in
the space provided on the back cover of this manual.
Service note: Dear OM, if you desire to correspond on a technical or
operational problem, please make your note short, complete, and to the point.
And PLEASE make it readable.
Please list: Model and serial number.
The question or problem you are having.
Please give sufficient detail to diagnose: other equipment in the station,
meter readings and anything you feel might be useful in attempting diagnosis.

Caution: Do not pack the equipment is crushed newspapers for shipment!
Extensive damage may result, during shipping.

1. Record the date of purchase, serial number and dealer from whom
2. For your own information, retain a written record of any maintenance
performed on the unit.
3. When claiming a warranty service, please include a photocopy of the bill
of sale, or other proof of purchase showing the date of sale.

5.3. Cleaning

The knobs, front panel and cabinet of the transceiver are likely to become
soiled after extended use. The knobs should be removed from the transceiver
and cleaned with a neutral soap and warm water. Use a neutral soap (not
harsh chemicals) and damp cloth to clean the cabinet and front panel.

5.4. In case of difficulty

The problems described in this table are failures caused in general by
improper operation or connection of the transceiver, not by defective
components. Examine and check according to the following table. If the
problem persists, contact an authorized agent or service station.


Symptom Probable Cause Corrective action

Indicators do not 1. Bad power cable or 1. Check cables
light and no connections. and connections.
receiver noise is 2. Blown power supply 2. Check for the
heard when the POWER fuse. cause of the
switch is turned on 3. Power supply is OFF blown fuse and replace the fuse.

Nothing is displayed The microprocessor 1. Adjust the
or wrong digits are malfunctions. This supply voltage
displayed when the occurs when the battery to nominal
POWER switch is is old or the supply +- 10V with use
turned on. voltage drops extremely of a boosting
on the occasion of transformer.
consuming large current. 2. Turn the POWER
switch on again.

No signal is received 1. SQL control is fully 1. Turn the SQL
even when the antenna clockwise. control counter-
is connected. 2. Microphone PTT switch clockwise.
is in the transmit 2. Set the PTT
position, and the switch to the
TS440S is in the receive
transmit mode. position.
3. SELECTIVITY switch 3. Ensure the is set to "N" or "M1" SELECTIVITY
and no optional filter switch is set to
is installed. either "AUTO", "M2", or "W".

An antenna is RF control is too low, Turn the RF gain
connected, but no decreasing the high control fully
signal is received frequency circuit gain. clockwise. and the S-meter fully

The S-meter deflects 1. Low AC line voltage. 1. Use a step-up
and stays at a 2. RF gain control is transformer to
certain position even closed. raise the line
with no signal. voltage.
Use a 12 to 16V battery.
2. Turn the RF gain control fully clockwise.

Signal is received, MODE key position is Change the MODE key
but no sound is incorrect. to the correct
heard. mode.

SSB received signal IF SHIFT control is Set the control to
is extremely high cut wrong adjusted. the center (click
or low cut. position.

Frequency is not F.LOCK switch is ON. Set F.LOCK switch
changed by pressing to OFF.
the BAND switch or
turning the tuning

Program scan fails. Memory channel is 6 Store the
and 7 or 8 and 9 are frequency. empty.

Memory scan fails. Memory is empty. Store the frequency

Display goes out with When nothing is stored Store the
VFO/M ON. in the memory channel, frequency. a channel is displayed
and blanked with only
the decimal point


Symptom Probable cause Corrective action

No output in SSB (RF 1. Open microphone 1. Check the
and ALC meters do not cable or bad microphone.
deflect.) microphone.
2. Low microphone gain. 2. Increase the MIC
gain control.

VOX does not operate. 1. VOX GAIN control is See section 3.1.2.,
too low. VOX GAIN control.
2. ANTI VOX control
requires adjustment.

VOX trips by speaker ANTI VOX control See section 3.1.2.,
output. requires adjustment. ANTI VOX control

No output in CW. The key plug is 1. Insert the key
incompletely inserted plug fully.
or KEY contact failure. 2. Turn the CAR
control clockwise.

Linear amplifier does 1. Internal connector 1. Move the
not key. was not moved. connector as
2. REMOTE connector is described in
miswired, or has a section 5.8.10.
poor contact.

5.5. Microprocessor back-up lithium battery

A lithium battery is contained in the transceiver to retain memory. Turning
off and POWER switch, disconnecting the power cable, or a power failure will
not erase the memory. The battery should last for approximately five years.
When the battery discharges, an erroneous display may appear in the display.
Lithium battery replacement should be performed by an authorized KENWOOD
service facility; either your KENWOOD service facility; either your KENWOOD
dealer, or the factory, since this unit contains CMOS type circuitry. Notes:
1. When the lithium battery is replaced, the microprocessor must be reset,
using the procedure in section 5.6.
2. When the lithium battery fails, the radio's microcoded functions are NOT
affected. Only information stored in memory will be cleared.

5.6. Microprocessor reset

When the microprocessor has functioned erroneously or when setting the
transceiver in the initial state, switch on the power with the A=B switch

Note: The microprocessor can be easily reset. However, only perform this
operation when necessary since the contents of memory are cleared by

5.7. Ordering spare parts

When ordering replacement or spare parts for your equipment be sure to
specify the following:
Model and serial number of your transceiver. Schematic number of the part.
Printed circuit board number on which the part is located, part number and
name, if known, and quantity desired. Part numbers for most known
replacement parts is contained in the service manual (available as an option
from your dealer).

5.8. Adjustments

5.8.1. Cover removal

1. Before removing the cover, turn the DC power supply's power switch OFF
and disconnect the power cable.
2. Do not pinch wiring when opening or closing cases.

Removing the covers
Remove the top cover (9 screws), filter unit cover (3 screws) and the bottom
covers (8 screws) from radio.

5.8.2. Internal view

(A) Top view

Diagram page 23

(B) Bottom view

Diagram page 23

5.8.3. Digital display calibration

1. Removing the top cover, filter unit cover and the bottom covers from
radio, and place the radio on its side with the antenna tuner area down.

2. Remove the two screws that secure the rear of the IF unit to the chassis
and raise the IF unit up towards the front panel. Connect the two pin end of
the supplied calibration cable to connector number 8 on the PLL unit, as
shown in the figure.

3. Connect the single pin end of the cable to the CAL terminal pin that is
located along the back edge of the RF unit, near the large shielded area.

4. Connect your antenna and tune to WWV.

5. Using a small flat bladed screwdriver adjust trimmer capacitor TC1, near
connector 8 of the PLL unit, for zero beat. Zero beat 1 the slowest rate.

Diagram page 24

Diagram page 24

Diagram page 24

5.8.4. Optional 10 Hz display resolution

If you would like 10 Hz resolution instead of the supplied 100 Hz display
resolution, cut D66 as show on the control unit.

1. Remove the top and bottom covers from the radio.

2. Remove the countersink screws (2 on each side) that secure the front
panel to the chassis and gently pull the front panel forwards.

3. Remove the 5 small round head screws that secure the shield plate (2 on
the top and 3 on the bottom) to the front panel, and remove the shield plate.

4. Cut the lead of diode D66 located below the dip switch on the control

5. Reverse steps 1 - 3 to resemble the reassemble the radio.

1. When reassembling the radio make sure that you do not cut or pinch any
wires between the chassis and front panel!
2. Do not alter the settings of the dip switch. They are factory adjusted,
and damage or misoperation may result.

Diagram page 24

5.8.5. CW zero beat frequency selection

You may select between 800 Hz and 400 Hz zero beat adjustments in the CW mode
by cutting diode D73 on the control unit.

1. Remove the top and bottom covers from the radio.

2. Remove the countersink screws (2 on each side) that secure the front
panel to the chassis and gently pull the front panel forwards.

3. Remove the 5 small round head screws that secure the shield plate (2 on
the top and 3 on the bottom) to the front panel, and remove the shield plate.

4. Cut the lead of diode D73 located below the dip switch on the control

5. Reverse steps 1 - 3 to reassemble the radio.

1. When reassembling the radio make sure that you do not cut or pinch any
wires between the chassis and front panel!
2. Do not alter the settings of the dip switch. They are factory adjusted,
and damage or misoperation may result.

Diagram page 25

5.8.6. Side tone level

1. Remove the top cover.

2. Adjust VR-9 for your reference.

3. Replace the top cover.

Diagram page 25.

5.8.7. Beep tone selection

The audio oscillator that provides the Morse Code signal when you press a
mode key may be changed to provide only a single confirmation tone by cutting
diode D65 on the Control unit.
1. Remove the top and bottom covers from the radio.

2. Remove the countersink screws (2 on each side) that secure the front
panel to the chassis and gently pull the front panel forwards.
3. Remove the 5 small round head screws that secure the shield plate (2 on
the top and 3 on the bottom) to the front panel, and remove the shield plate.

4. Cut the lead of diode D65 located below the dip switch on the control

5. Reverse steps 1 - 3 to reassemble the radio.

1. When reassembling the radio make sure that you do not cut or pinch any
wires between the chassis and front panel!
2. Do not alter the settings of the dip switch. They are factory adjusted,
and damage or misoperation may result.

Diagram page 25

5.8.8. Beep tone level

1. Remove the top cover.

2. Adjust the VR-10 for you reference.

3. Replace the top cover.

Diagram page 25

5.8.9. TUNING dial torque

Turn the VFO knob while holding the silver ring. As the VFO knob is turned
clockwise, drag will be increased.

Diagram page 26

5.8.10. Linear amplifier control

As delivered from the factory, the external keying relay for control of a
linear amplifier is disabled. If you want to connect a linear amplifier
connect the jumper wire on the Switch unit to the ON terminal as shown in the
accompanying figure.

Diagram page 26

Note: The control relay functions only when the jumper wire on board X41-
1610-N/14 is connected to the ON position.

6. Optional accessories

the following accessories are available for more sophisticated operation of
your transceiver.

6.1. Crystal filter installation

1. Remove the top cover from the radio. Be careful of the speaker lead,
which may be unplugged.

2. Remove the seven screws securing the IF unit to the chassis.

3. Install the crystal filter in the appropriate location on the IF unit.
The SSB filter goes towards the center and the CW filter towards the edge of
the board. Solder the filter in place, and cut off the excess lead lengths.

Note: When soldering use a low wattage iron (40 watts or less), and a high
quality rosin core solder. Do not use acid core solder as this will
eventually cause damage to the circuit board. Solder quickly, by ensure that
you a have
a good solder connection. If the connection is dull, or looks crystallized
you will have to remove the solder and try again.

4. When installing the optional crystal filter, move the white or blue
lead, or both to the appropriate terminal.

5. Replace the IF unit and secure with the seven screws removed in step 2.

6. To attach the speaker lead, and replace the top cover.

Note: Two terminals are provided for the WIDE and SSB jumper. Either of the
two terminals may be used.

YK-88C CW Filter
Center frequency: 8,830.7 kHz
Passband width: 500 Hz (-6 dB
Attenuation bandwidth: 1.5 kHz (-60 dB)
Guaranteed attenuation: More than 80 dB

YK-88CN CW Narrow Filter
Center frequency: 8,830.7 kHz
Passband width: 270 Hz (-6 dB)
Attenuation bandwidth: 1.1 kHz (-60 dB)
Guaranteed attenuation: More than 80 dB

YK-88SN SSB Narrow Filter
Center frequency: 8,830.0 kHz
Passband width: 1.8 kHz (-6 dB)
Attenuation bandwidth: 3.3 kHz (-60 dB)
Guaranteed attenuation: More than 80 dB

YK-88S SSB Filter
Center frequency: 8,830.0 kHz
Passband width: 2.4 kHz (-6 dB)
Attenuation bandwidth: 4.2 kHz (-60 dB)
Guaranteed attenuation: More than 80 dB

Diagram page 27

Pictures page 27

Chart page 28

6.2. Voice Synthesizer Unit VS-1 Installation

1. Remove the top cover from the radio.

2. Remove the two screws on the rear of the IF unit and raise the unit to
allow access to the PLL unit.

3. Install the VS-1 in the area at the left rear with the PLL unit using
the three screws provided with the VS-1.

4. Install the 3-pin plug on connector J01 and the 8 pin plug on connector

5. Select the desired language that you want with switch S-1 on the VS-1.
ENG for English, or JA for Japanese.

6. Install the 4-pin plug on connector 3 05 of the IF unit.

7. Reverse step 1 - 2.

8. Turn on the power switch and press the VOICE switch. The frequency will
be announced. Adjust VR-1 for the desired audio output level.

Diagram page 29

6.3. Interface IC Kit IC-10 Installation

Installing the optional IC-10 kit will allow control of the radio from a
personal computer. The following operation are possible:
- Programming and recall of VFO A and VFO B frequency
- MR (Memory Recall) and M.IN (Memory Input)
- Microphone UP/DOWN frequency control disable
- Control of the F.LOCK switch
- Memory channel selection
- MODE selection
- Control of RIT/XIT
- Selection of RIT/XIT frequency
- Scan operation
- Review of transceiver status

6.3.1. Installation

1. Remove the top and bottom covers from the radio.

2. Remove the countersink screws (2 on each side) that secure the front
panel to the chassis and gently pull the front panel forwards.

3. Remove the 5 small round head screws that secure the shield plate (2 on
the top and 3 on the bottom) to the front panel, and remove the shield plate.

4. Install the IC's into the vacant sockets on the Control unit.
Orientation of this component is critical for proper operation of the radio,
and interface.

Caution: Install the IC's so that the notch in the end is on the same end as
the notch in the IC socket.

Diagram page 29

5. Reverse steps 1 - 3 to reassemble the radio.

Caution: Do not pinch and stretch any wires.

6.3.2. Operation

Refer to the instruction manual provided with the IC-10 Interface IC Kit.

6.4. Other accessories

PS-50 Heavy Duty DC Power Supply
Designed to match the TS-440S. Supplies regulated 13.8 VDC at 20 A with
built-in cooling fan and protection circuits for maximum reliability.

PS-430 DC Power Supply
The PS-430 is a regulated DC power supply with high current capability. The
output is 13.8 VDC/20 A (intermittent). Since terminals for 13.8 VDC/10 A
are also provided, in addition to an output poser cable for use with the
TS-440S, the PS-430 can be used as the power source for another low power
source for another low power mobile transceiver such as a 2-meter rig.

AT-440 Automatic Antenna Tuner Unit
Automatic Antenna Tuner unit can be installed in the TS-44oS. The tuner
covers all amateur bands from 80 through 10 meters, including the new WARC
bands. Matching capability is 20 150 ohms, unbalanced.

AT-250 Automatic Antenna Tuner
The AT-230 Automatic Antenna Tuner covers 160 through 10 meters bands.

AT-230 Antenna Tuner
The AT-230 Antenna Tuner covers 160 through 10 meters bands.

AT-130 Antenna Tuner
The AT-130 Antenna Tuner covers 80 through 10 meters bands.

MC-85 Microphone (8-pin)
The MC-85 is a unidirectional high-class electret condenser microphone
provided with the output selective switch, audio level compensation circuit,
low cut filter, level meter, PTT and LOCK switches. An 8-pin cable is
provided, with optional cables, up to three outputs are possible.

MC-80 Microphone (8-pin)
The zinc die-cast base provides UP/DOWN switches, LED display for switching
transmit or receive, adjustable microphone gain, automatic receive returning
circuit (approx. 5 minutes) and many functions.

MC-42S UP/DOWN Hand Microphone
The MC-42S is a handy dynamic microphone with PTT switch and UP/DOWN

LF-30A Low Pass Filter

Pictures page 30

MB-430 Mobile Mount
The Mobile Mount MB-430 allows easy installation and removal of the TS- 440S.
The MB-430 can either be suspended from the dashboard or attached
to the transmission tunnel or a center console. The transceiver tilt angle
can be adjusted in 5 steps.

PG-2C DC Power Cable

MA-5 5 Band Helical Type HF Mobile Antenna

VP-1 Bumper Mount For MA-5

SP-430 External Speaker
The Sp-430 is an attractive, compact external speaker. This low-distortion
speaker provides clear reproduction of the high-quality audio obtained from
the transceiver.

SP-50 Mobile Speaker (8 ohms)
Compact and smart high quality external speaker provides flexibility of
installation for maximum convenience.

SP-40 Compact Mobile Speaker (4 ohms)

TL-922A/TL-922 HF Linear Amplifier
(Not for QSK operation.)
The TL-922A/922 is an HF linear amplifier operating at maximum legal power,
and employing a pair of 3-500Z high performance transmitting tubes. TL-922A
(without 10 meter band) is available only in U.S.A.

SM-220 Station Monitor
Built around a basic 10 MHz oscilloscope, the SM-220 station monitor
features, in combination with a built-in two-tone generator, a variety of
waveform- observing capabilities.

PC-1A Phone Patch
(Available only where phone parch operation legal.)
Hybrid phone patch with VU meter for null and audio gain measurements. The
PC-1A Phone Patch provides interface between the transceiver and telephone
line. Providing excellent performance, it is designed with high isolation
between receive input and transmit output. Its compact design permits easy
installation in a limited space. (FCC Part 68 registered)

Pictures page 31

TU-8 Subaudible Tone Unit
38 CTCSS tone frequencies can be selected by setting of the dip switch.

IF-232C Interface
The IF-232C Interface is the adapter for connection between the RS-232C
terminal of a personal computer and the interface terminal of the TS-440S.

IC-10 Interface IC Kit

SW-2000 SWR/Power Meter
SWR/POWER meters cover 1.8~54 MHz in range of 0~200/2000 W, full scale
for base station use.

SW-200 A supplied with SWC-1. Selectable Peakreading/RMS. SWR/POWER meters
cover 1.8~150 MHz in range of 0~20/200 W full scale for base station use.

Compact and lightweight SWR/POWER/VOLT meters cover 1.8~150 MHz in
range of 150 W full scale for mobile use.

HS-7 Micro Headphones (16 ohms)

HS-6 Communications Headphones (12.5 ohms)
Deluxe, very lightweight headphones designed for communications equipment.

HS-5 Communications Headphones (8 ohms)
Headphones designed for communications equipment. These light-weight open
air-type headphones remain comfortable during extended operation. Easily
attached earpads are provided.

HS-4 Communications Headphones (8 ohms)

Pictures page 32

7. Block Diagram

Diagram page 33

8. Schematic Diagram

8.1. Filter Unit (X51-1340-00)/Display Unit (X54-1870-00) (B/4)

Diagram page 34

8.2. At Unit (X57-1150-00)

Diagram page 35

8.3. Final Unit (X54-1470-00)

Diagram page 36

8.4. PLL Unit (X50-2050-00)

Diagram page 37

8.5. RF UNIT (X44-1680-00)

Diagram page 38

8.6. Control Unit (X53-1450-00)/Display Unit (X54-1870-00) (A/4)

Diagram page 39

8.7. If Unit (X60-1300-00)

Diagram page 40

9. Specifications and Accessories

9.1. Specifications


Mode LSB (A3J), USB (A3J), CW (A1), AM (A3), FM
(F3), FSK (F1)

Antenna impedance With AT unit 20 to 150 ohms (Transmit only)
Without At unit 50 ohms

Power requirement 12 to 16 VDC (13.8 VDC reference)

Grounding Negative

Current drain Receive mode with 1.9 A
no input signal
Transmit mode 20 A

Operating temperature -10 to +15C (+14 to +122F)

Dimensions () Wide 270 (279) mm
includes projection High 96 (108) mm
Deep 313 (335) mm

Weight With AT unit 7.3 kg (16.1 lbs) Without At unit 6.3 kg (13.9 lbs)


Frequency range 160 m band 1.8 to 2.0 MHz
80 m band 3.5 to 4.0 MHz
40 m band 7.0 to 7.3 MHz
30 m band 10.1 to 10.15 MHz
20 m band 14.0 to 14.35 MHz
17 m band 18.068 to 18.168 MHz
15 m band 21.0 to 21.45 MHz
12 m band 24.89 to 24.99 MHz
10 m band 28.0 to 29.7 MHz

Input power LSB, USB, CW, FM, 200 W PEP
AM 110 W PEP

Modulation LSB, USB Balanced modulation
FM Reactance modulation
AM Reactance modulation

Spurious radiation (CW) Less than -40 dB

Carrier suppression More than 40 dB (with 1.5 kHz reference)

Unwanted sideband suppression More than 50 dB (with 1.5 kHz reference)

Third order distortion More than 26 dB below
one of two tones

Maximum frequency deviation (FM) +- 5 kHz

Frequency response (-6 dB) 400 to 2600 Hz

Microphone impedance 500 ohms to 50 k ohm


Circuitry Triple conversion super- heterodyne

Frequency range 100 kHz to 30 MHz

Intermediate frequency 1st: 45.05 MHz, 2nd: 8.83 MHz, 3rd: 455 kHz

Sensitivity LSB, USB, CW 100 to 150 kHz Less than 2.5
FSK (at 10 dB microvolts
S/N) 150 to 500 kHz Less than 1
500 kHz to 1.6 Less than 4
MHz microvolts
1.6 to 30 MHz Less than .25 microvolts

AM (at 10 dB 100 to 150 kHz Less than 25
S/N) microvolts
150 to 500 kHz Less than 13 microvolts
500 kHz to 1.6 Less than 40
MHz microvolts
1.6 to 30 MHz Less than 2.5 microvolts

FM (at 12 dB 1.6 to 30 MHz Less than 0.7 microvolts

Selectivity LSB, USB, CW, FSK -6 dB 2.2 kHz
-60 4.4 kHz

AM -6 dB 6 kHz

-50 dB 18 kHz

FM -6 dB 12 kHz
-50 dB 25 kHz

Image ratio 100 kHz to 1.6 MHz More than 50 dB
1.6 to 30 MHz More than 70 dB

IF rejection 100 kHz to 1.6 MHz More than 50 dB
1.6 to 30 MHz More than 70 dB

IF SHIFT variable range More than +- 0.9 kHz

RIT/XIT variable range More than +- 1 kHz

NOTCH filter attenuation More than 20 dB (at 1.5

Squelch sensitivity LSB, USB, 100 to 150 kHz Less than 20
CW, AM, microvolts
FSK 150 to 500 kHz Less than 10
500 kHz to 1.6 Less than 20
Mhz microvolts
1.6 to 30 Mhz Less than 2 microvolts

FM 1.6 to 30 MHz Less than .32

Output 1.5 W across 8 ohms load (10% distortion)

Output load impedance 4 to 16 ohms (both ext. speaker and phones)

Frequency control

Frequency accuracy (at RIT/XIT off) Less than +- x 10 to the power of -5

Frequency stability (at RIT/XIT off) Less than +- x 10 to the power of -5
(-10 to + 50 degrees celsius)

Circuit and ratings are subject to change without notice due to development
in technology

9.2. Accessories

Dynamic microphone (Except Europe and U.K) - T91-0352-05 - 1 pc. DC Power
cable assembly - E30-1638-05 - 1 pc.
Calibration cable - E31-2154-05 - 1 pc.
Fuse (20A) - F05-2034-05 - 1 pc.
Knob - K23-0712-04 - 1 pc.
DIN plug (7-pin) - E07-0751-05 - 1 pc
Instruction manual - B50-8048-20 1 copy
Warranty card (U.S.A. only) - 1 copy

10. Reference

10.1. Antenna installation

10.1.1. Fixed station

For HF fixed-station operation, an antenna specifically designed for amateur
operation is recommended. Antenna types include wire antennas, verticals,
rotary beams, and other antenna types. (Fig. 10.1) HF antennas are quite
large and must be installed to withstand strong wind, heavy rain, etc. Any
antenna used with the TS-440S should be of 50-ohm impedance and should be
connected using an appropriate coaxial cable such as RG-8/U. Impedance
matching is important. Impedance mismatching will result in a high VSWR and
power loss, or can cause unwanted harmonic radiation and interference (TVI,
The impedance match can be checked with an SWR meter. Generally,
satisfactory operation is assured when the VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
is less than 1.5:1.
A rotary beam antenna is very effective for DX communication in the 14,21 and
28 MHz bands. If open wire or balanced type transmission line is used with
the antenna, a suitable antenna tuner with balun is recommended between the
transceiver and the feed line. Methods of construction and operating such
tuners are described in detail in the ARRL Antenna Handbook, or similar
publications. For operation on the 160,75 and 40 meter bands, a simple
dipole antenna, cut to resonance in the most used portion of the band, will
perform satisfactorily. For operation on the 10,15 and 20 meter bands, the
efficiency of the station will be greatly increased if a good directional
rotary antenna is used. Remember that even the most sophisticated
transceiver is useless without a good antenna.

Diagram page 43

Diagram page 43

10.1.2. Mobile

(1) Antenna
Use a sturdy mount for the mobile antenna since HF antennas are larger (and
have more wind load) and are heavier than VHF antennas. A bumper mount is
recommended for general use. The ground side of the mount must be well
grounded to the care body, since the body itself functions as the ground
plane for the mobile antenna.

1. Some cars have plastic bumpers. For such cars, ground the antenna mount
to the body.
2. When tuning a newly installed antenna, use the following procedure:
- Turn the CAR control fully counter-clockwise for minimum transmit power.
- With the transceiver in transmit mode, raise transmit power output
slowly be rotating the CAR control clockwise. The antenna should be adjusted
with minimum power.
- Transmitting with full power is recommended only after the antenna has
been adjusted for a VSWR below 1.5:1
3. Antenna installation is critical for successful mobile operation. For
further information refer to The Radio Amateur's Handbook, Radio Handbook, or
other texts.

(2) Coaxial cable connection
When the antenna is mounted on the vehicles bumper, the coaxial cable from
the antenna can be routed through a drain hole in the trunk. When the
antenna is roof mounted pass the cable between the body and door. Leave a
at the lowest point in the cable before entry into the vehicle to prevent
water from entering the car.

(3) Adjustment
Some mobile antennas are not designed at 50-ohm impedance. In this case,
impedance matching between the antenna and the coaxial cable (50) is
required. This can be achieved by using an antenna matching device or
The antenna to be used should first be checked with a dip meter to insure
that it is designed for your operating band, then the impedance matching
should be checked with an SWR meter.
The VSWR should preferably be less than 1.5:1 for satisfactory operation.
For antenna adjustment refer to the antenna instruction manual.

(4) Antenna matching
In general, mobile antennas have lower impedance than the 50-ohm coaxial
cable used to feed them, resulting in a mismatch between the antenna and the
coax. Such trouble can be eliminated by using an antenna tuner between the
transceiver and the coaxial cable.

Diagram page 44

Diagram page 44

10.2. Mobile operation

10.2.1. Installation

Route battery and ANTENNA leads away from all high voltage secondary circuits
to prevent ignition noise interference.

Diagram page 44

10.2.2. Noise reduction

In motor vehicles, noise is generated by the ignition system. Other sources
of noise include the wiper and heater motors.
Although the transceiver is equipped with a noise blanker to minimize
ignition noise, it is imperative that some preventive measures be taken to
reduce the noise to the lowest possible level.

(1) Antenna location selection
Since ignition noise is generated by the vehicles engine, the antenna must be
installed as far from the engine as possible.

(2) Bonding
The component parts of motor vehicles, such as the engine, transmission,
muffler system, accelerator, etc., are coupled to one another at DC and low
frequencies, but are isolated at high frequencies. By connecting these parts
using heavy, braided group straps, ignition noise can be reduced. This
connection is called "bonding".

(3) Use ignition suppressor cable or suppressor spark plugs
Noise can be reduced by using spark plugs with internal resistors, or
resistive suppressor ignition cable.

10.2.3. Battery capacity

The power system of a motor vehicle is comprised of a battery and an
alternator (which generates power while the engine is running) to supply
current to loads or to charge the battery.
Since the transceiver draws high current during transmit, care should be
exercised so the power system is not overloaded. When using the transceiver,
the following points should be observed from the viewpoint of battery
1. Turn the transceiver OFF when the lights, heater, wipers and other high-
draw accessories are used.

2. Avoid transceiver operation when the engine is not running.

3. If necessary, use an ammeter and/or a voltmeter to check battery

Diagram page 46

Frequency distribution in the broadcast and amateur bands
The general coverage receiver covers from 100 kHz to 30 Mhz, to receive
international broadcast and communication services.
As shown in the frequency allocation chart, broadcast and amateur radio
station frequencies are allocated in specific bands expressed in megahertz
(MHz) or wavelength in meters (m). Also the frequencies of "other stations"
are assigned for fixed station business use, marine mobile, aviation mobile,
land mobile, radio beacon stations, etc.

1. Radio station throughout the world are listed in the World Radio TV
Handbook or similar publications.
2. Antennas designed for ham band operation generally provide satisfactory
reception for SW stations near ham bands. For antenna construction details,
see the ARRL Antenna Handbook or similar publications.

Disclaimer: The information on this site is provided as a public service to the blind and visually handicapped community. While we have done our best to ensure the information provided is accurate, please realize the use of any information on this site is solely at your discretion and we take no responsibility for use or attempted use of this information.

Copyright © 2003-2015 Bibles for the Blind, Inc.
Report Errors and website comments to support@optimusmedia.com

Hosted by OptimusMedia.com